Friday, December 6, 2019

Labor and Unions in America Essay Example For Students

Labor and Unions in America Essay The Industrial Revolution was dawning in the United States. At Lowell, Massachusetts, the construction of a big cotton mill began in 1821. It was the first of several that would be built there in the next 10 years. The machinery to spin and weave cotton into cloth would be driven by water power. All that the factory owners needed was a dependable supply of labor to tend the machines. As most jobs in cotton factories required neither great strength nor special skills, the owners thought women could do the work as well as or better than men. In addition, they were more compliant. The New England region was home to many young, single farm girls who might be recruited. But would stern New England farmers allow their daughters to work in factories? The great majority of them would not. They believed that sooner or later factory workers would be exploited and would sink into hopeless poverty. Economic laws would force them to work harder and harder for less and less pay. THE LOWELL EXPERIMENTHow, then, were the factory owners able to recruit farm girls as laborers? They did it by building decent houses in which the girls could live. These houses were supervised by older women who made sure that the girls lived by strict moral standards. The girls were encouraged to go to church, to read, to write and to attend lectures. They saved part of their earnings to help their families at home or to use when they got married. The young factory workers did not earn high wages; the average pay was about $3.50 a week. But in those times, a half-dozen eggs cost five cents and a whole chicken cost 15 cents. The hours worked in the factories were long. Generally, the girls worked 11 to 13 hours a day, six days a week. But most people in the 1830s worked from dawn until dusk, and farm girls were used to getting up early and working until bedtime at nine oclock. The factory owners at Lowell believed that machines would bring progress as well as profit. Workers and capitalists would both benefit from the wealth created by mass production. For a while, the factory system at Lowell worked very well. The population of the town grew from 200 in 1820 to 30,000 in 1845. But conditions in Lowells factories had already started to change. Faced with growing competition, factory owners began to decrease wages in order to lower the cost-and the price-of finished products. They increased the number of machines that each girl had to operate. In addition, they began to overcrowd the houses in which the girls lived. Sometimes eight girls had to share one room. In 1836, 1,500 factory girls went on strike to protest wage cuts. (The girls called their action a turn out.) But it was useless. Desperately poor immigrants were beginning to arrive in the United States from Europe. To earn a living, they were willing to accept low wages and poor working conditions. Before long, immigrant women replaced the Yankee (American) farm girls. To many people, it was apparent that justice for wage earners would not come easily. Labor in America faced a long, uphill struggle to win fair treatment. In that struggle, more and more workers would turn to labor unions to help their cause. They would endure violence, cruelty and bitter defeats. But eventually they would achieve a standard of living unknown to workers at any other time in history. GROWTH OF THE FACTORYIn colonial America, most manufacturing was done by hand in the home. Some was done in workshops attached to the home. .u08146a3590eff8efc4f5059c91dc0bc8 , .u08146a3590eff8efc4f5059c91dc0bc8 .postImageUrl , .u08146a3590eff8efc4f5059c91dc0bc8 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u08146a3590eff8efc4f5059c91dc0bc8 , .u08146a3590eff8efc4f5059c91dc0bc8:hover , .u08146a3590eff8efc4f5059c91dc0bc8:visited , .u08146a3590eff8efc4f5059c91dc0bc8:active { border:0!important; } .u08146a3590eff8efc4f5059c91dc0bc8 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u08146a3590eff8efc4f5059c91dc0bc8 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u08146a3590eff8efc4f5059c91dc0bc8:active , .u08146a3590eff8efc4f5059c91dc0bc8:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u08146a3590eff8efc4f5059c91dc0bc8 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u08146a3590eff8efc4f5059c91dc0bc8 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u08146a3590eff8efc4f5059c91dc0bc8 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u08146a3590eff8efc4f5059c91dc0bc8 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u08146a3590eff8efc4f5059c91dc0bc8:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u08146a3590eff8efc4f5059c91dc0bc8 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u08146a3590eff8efc4f5059c91dc0bc8 .u08146a3590eff8efc4f5059c91dc0bc8-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u08146a3590eff8efc4f5059c91dc0bc8:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Youth Essay As towns grew into cities, the demand for manufactured goods increased. Some workshop owners began hiring helpers to increase production. Relations between the employer and helper were generally harmonious. They worked side by side, had the same interests and held similar political views. The factory system that began around 1800 brought great changes. The employer no longer worked beside his employees. He became an executive and a merchant who rarely saw his workers. He was concerned less with their welfare than with the cost of their labor. Many workers were angry

Friday, November 29, 2019

Out of the Silent Planet free essay sample

â€Å"Out of the Silent Planet† by C. S. Lewis Essay 1 (Character sketch) C. S. Lewis’ Out of the Silent Planet follows the adventures of Dr. Elwin Ransom, a philogy professor at Cambridge University, who while on a walking tour of the English countryside was drugged and kidnapped by two men, Devine and Westin. He is then taken to the planet of Malacondra. Through his travels of the unknown planet, we learn that Dr. Elwin Ransom is a very intelligent man with quick response and philosophical mind. In the first chapter of the novel, we learn that Ransom is a very well educated and intelligent man. At Cambridge he taught linguistics. This worked to his advantage, especially after escaping his captors, when he came across a civilized group of natives by the name of Hross. Ransom lived among the Hross for several weeks. Within that short period of time, he was able to learn their language and communicate with them. We will write a custom essay sample on Out of the Silent Planet or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The author writes, â€Å"but the real revolution in his understanding of the Hrossa began when he had learned enough of their language to attempt some satisfaction of their curiosity about himself† (39). Not only was he able to master their language, but he was actually able to gather information from the different species and learn the entire history of Malacondra. In addition to this, Ransom learned that the Malacondrian society is made up of three distinctly different but equal species, each with different roles to play. Elwin Ransom was also a philosophical man, occasionally drifting off into deep sessions of thought. As the spacecraft entered Malacondra’s atmosphere, Ransom thought about how space is vibrant and alive, and that the planets are actually the â€Å"dark† places among the bright heavens. â€Å"How indeed should it be otherwise, since out of this ocean the worlds and all their life had come? He had thought it barren; he saw now that it was the womb of worlds, whose blazing and innumerable offspring looked down nightly even upon the Earth with so many eyes and here, with how many more!

Monday, November 25, 2019

Semi-Detailed Lesson Plan For Cookie Monster And The Cookie Essays

Semi-Detailed Lesson Plan For Cookie Monster And The Cookie Essays Semi-Detailed Lesson Plan For Cookie Monster And The Cookie Paper Semi-Detailed Lesson Plan For Cookie Monster And The Cookie Paper Tree Level: Pre-school/ Kindergarten Subject: Reading l. Objectives A. To realize the value of sharing. B. To realize that if you try hard enough, you will succeed. C. To describe the witch through a character profile. D. To describe the cookie monster through a character profile. E. To state the cookie monsters problem through a diary. F. To write the conversation regarding an argument between the witch and the cookie tree. G. To make a certificate of recognition for cookie monster and the witch for learning how to share. H. To appreciate the authors style by using speech bubbles in presenting the characters dialogues. II. Selection: Cookie Monster and the Cookie Tree by David Korr (Western Publishing Company Inc, 1977) III. Materials Book, flashcards for unlocking of difficulties, activity posters, writing and coloring materials, timer V. Procedure: A. Prereading 1. Unlocking of Difficulties a. ridiculous unbelievable, laughable Last weekend, I went to see a magic show. The magician said he could turn a handkerchief into a rabbit. The audience did not believe him. They told him it was ridiculous and they all laughed. What do you think ridiculous means? Did the audience think he can really turn the handkerchief into a rabbit? b. discouraged hopeless Even though the audience did not believe him, he still tried to do his trick. He waved his arms in the air but nothing happened. The audience Just laughed at him and he felt discouraged. What do you think discouraged means? How do you think the c. cast a spell say magic words Then the magician remembered that he forgot to cast a spell on the handkerchief. He said, Abracadabra and it turned into a rabbit. What does cast a spell mean? What id the magician do? What kind of words did he say? B. Motive and Motivation Questions: 1 . Motivation Question: Have you seen magicians do magic tricks? Can you name some of them? 2. Motive Question: Lets find out in the story what magic trick the witch will do. C. Reading What do you think the cookie monster will do? (page 8) D. Post Reading 1 . Engagement Activities: a. Character Profile the group will enumerate the witchs characteristics. b. Character Profile the group will enumerate the cookie monsters characteristics c. Diary the group will state cookie monsters problem d. Speech Bubble the group will write the conversation regarding an argument between the witch and the cookie tree. e. Certificate of Recognition the group will make a certificate for cookie monster and the witch for learning how to share. 2. Discussion: Who was visiting a tree in the forest? What kind of tree does she own? How did the witch feel about the cookie tree? Did she want to share it with anyone else? Why? Who else came to the forest? What is the cookie monster famous for? When the witch saw the cookie monster, what did she do? What kind of spell did she cast on the cookie tree? What happened when the cookie monster saw the cookie tree? What did the cookie tree tell the cookie monster? What did the cookie monster do after talking to the cookie tree? How did the witch feel after the cookie monster left? When cookie monster reached Sesame Street, what did he do? Did his friends believe him? Why? think he shared them with his friends? How did cookie monster feel when his friends did not believe him? While the cookie monster was with his friends, what was the witch doing? What can you say about the witch? What did she have in common with cookie monster? Did the cookie monster find anyone to share cookies with him? Why? If you were the cookie monster would you give up? Why? What did the cookie monster decide to do? What did he see when he returned to the forest? What did the cookie monster and the witch decide to do? What did the cookie tree do? Did the cookie monster and the witch get any cookies? Why? What happened to the spell? Why? What happened to the cookie tree after the cookie monster stopped eating? If you were the witch or the cookie monster would you do the same thing? Why? If one of your classmates forgot his or her snack what would you do? Why? Why is it important to share? Semi-Detailed Lesson Plan For The Dream Eater Level: Pre-school/Kindergarten/Grade 1 l. Objectives: A. To learn the value of helping others in need. B. To learn the value of gratitude. C. To describe Yukio through a character profile. D. To describe the baku through a character profile. E. To write a conversation between Yukio and the baku. F. To make a chart comparing everybodys dreams. G. To make an award for Yukio and the baku. H. To appreciate the illustrators beautiful drawings. The Dream Eater by Christian Garrison Illustrated by Diane Goode Macmillan Publishing Company, 1978. a. amboo This is a drawing of a bamboo plant. What can you say about this plant? Compare its parts with other plants. b. tender shoots The farmer planted the tender shoots of bamboo yesterday. What do we mean by tender shoots? How long does it take for plants to grow? c. nightmare After watching a horror movie, I had a nightmare. In my nightmare, I was being chased by monsters. What does nightmare mean? What kind of dream did I have? d. bandits The policemen are looking for bandits who stole a lot of money. What do you think bandits mean? What is another word for bandits? e. errible I heard a terrible news last week. A lot of people died because of the storm? What do you think terrible means? What kind of news did I hear? 1. strange The strange plant has violet leaves. What does strange mean? Do plants usually have violet leaves? 2. Motivation Question: What kind of dreams do you have when you sleep at night? 3. Motive Question: Lets find out in the story what kind of dreams the villagers have. B. Reading What do you think Yukio and the baku will do? (page 10) Ill. Post-Reading A. Engagement Activities 1 . Character Profile the group should be able to describe Yukios characteristics. 2. Character Profile the group should be able to describe the bakus characteristics. 3. Speech Bubble the group should be able to write the conversation between Yukio and the baku. 4. Chart the group should be able to make a Before And After chart about the villagers dreams. 5. Award the group should be able to make an award for the baku and Yukio. B. Discussions: 1. Where did the story happen? 2. What is the name of the little boy in the story? 3. What kind of dreams is he having? 4. Who else are having nightmares? What did they tell Yukio? 6. What did Yukio feel? 7. What happened when Yukio went to the river? 8. What did he see? 9. What happened to the baku? 11 . If you were Yukio would you do the same thing? Why? 12. How did the baku feel after being helped by Yukio? 13. What did the baku say to Yukio? 14. What did Yukio want the baku to do? 15. When they crossed the river bridge, what did the baku do? 16. If you were the baku, would you do the same thing? Why? 17. How do you think the villagers felt when their nightmares disappeared? 18. Why is it important to help others who are in need? 19. When you help others, how do you feel afterwards? 20. When somebody helps you, what should you do? Semi-Detailed Lesson Plan for Friends Level: Grade One A. Expressive Objectives 1. To learn the value of having friends. 2. To learn that friends always help each other. B. Instructional Objectives 1. To describe Charlie, Johnny and Percy through a character profile. 2. To make a chart about their different roles. 3. To write a conversation between the friends. 4. To make an award for their friends. 5. To make a list of things that friends do with each other C. Aesthetic Objectives 1. To appreciate the illustrators drawings II. Selection: Friends by Helme Heine (Illustrated by Helme Heine) Book Flashcards Activity posters Writing and coloring materials Timer V. Procedure a. Rumble Yesterday, I was so hungry that I heard my stomach rumble. What do you think rumble means? What happens when you are hungry? b. Plugged up The driver plugged up the hole in the tire. What do you think plugged up means? What will happen if you dont plug up a hole? c. Tiller The sailor used the tiller to turn right and then go straight. What do you think a tiller means? What is it used for? d. Steepest Mt. Apo is the steepest mountain in the Philippines. 1. What does steep mean? What can you say about Mt. Apo? 2. Motivation Question a. What do you do together with your friends? 3. Motive Question a. Lets find out in the story what the friends do together. B. During Reading The teacher will ask, What do you think they will do next? C. Post-Reading 1 . Engagement Activities a. Character Profile The group should be able to describe Charlie, Johnny and Percys characteristics. b. Chart The group should be able to state their different roles when riding a bicycle or a boat. c. Award The group should be able to make an ward for the friends. Discussion a. Who are the best friends in the story? b. What do they always say about good friends? c. What do they do every morning? d. After helping Charlie, what else do they do? e. What can you say about the friends when they do something together? f. What did they do when they got hungry? h. Where did they want to sleep? i. What did they decide to do? j. What did they dream about? k. How do you think the friends feel about each other? l. How do you feel about your friends? m. What are some of the things that friends do together? n. Why is it important to have friends?

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Executive Summary Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Executive Summary - Article Example lve health care advisor, on how hospital management efficiency can be achieved through adoption of the 5S strategy: sort, straighten, shine, standardize, and sustain. Sorting helps hospitals to identify items that are no longer useful. Straightening helps hospitals to arrange their resources via basic visual management to reduce inventory and ensure orderliness. The shine step enables hospitals to expose situations that may put hospital efficiency and quality in jeopardy and swiftly act on them appropriately. The standardize step is where hospitals establish standard protocols to ensure that the first three Ss are effectively executed and that there is no relapse. The sustain phase entails the maintenance of efficient hospital averment by keeping the other four Ss alive. It is the most difficult to execute of all the 5Ss. Effective implementation of the 5S system is crucial for attaining short and long-term efficiency objectives. Rodak, S. (2012). â€Å"The 5 "Ss" to Creating an Efficient Hospital Environment.† Beckers Hospital Review. Retrieved April 16, 2014 from

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

The Art of Business in the 21st Century Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The Art of Business in the 21st Century - Essay Example Recognizing the value of information to the 21st century business, the paper recommends the use of ERP software for business. Every enterprise strives to be profitable and dominant in its industry, but it is only those firms that continually strive to understand their areas of operation through application of industry research and innovation that eventually register significant success. Michael Porter a professor at the Harvard Business School suggests a model that can enable business to understand the key drivers or factors, which can contribute to business success and competitive advantage. Porter’s value-chain model represents a framework that can enable a business analyze specific activities, which will create value and guarantee competitive advantage. First and foremost, the business has to analyze its inbound logistics and processes that include the processes of receiving goods and raw materials, storage and inventory control as well as transportation scheduling. The bus iness must aim at bringing efficiency and effectiveness by changing and improving inbound logistic processes. It therefore calls for innovation and creativity on the part of everybody within the organization. Inbound logistics represent one side of the coin, outbound logistics, which entails all the activities necessary to get the completed product to the clients, such as warehousing, order fulfillment, transportation and distribution management, must also be looked into. Streamlining inbound and outbound processes will guarantee efficiency. Another area that the business must seek to improve on a continually basis is its operations. This includes machining, packaging, assembly, equipment maintenance, testing and any other value-creating activities that seek to transform the inputs into the finished product (Porter 3). Customers need to be aware of the existing products that the firm produces. Therefore, marketing and sales department is an indispensable part any business that wants to be profitable. Sales and marketing entails all activities related with getting buyers to buy the product including pricing, channel selection, retail management advertising, selling and promotion. The business must also look into its service delivery. Service delivery involves all activities that aim at enhancing and maintaining a product's value. This also includes customer support, repair services, management of spare parts and upgrading. In addition to service delivery, the enterprise must streamline its procurement processes. These processes include the procurement of raw materials, servicing, spare parts, buildings and machines. A successful business also takes advantage of technology. Therefore, the business must be able to budget for technology development to support the value chain activities. Technology development initiatives may include research and development, process, automation as well as design and redesign. Lastly, the general management, legal, planning managem ent, finance, accounting, quality management, public affairs, which form the firm's infrastructure must be aligned in a way so as to provide for efficient business operation. Porter also continues to argue that a business is usually affected by a number of forces that will either act positively to ensure business success or if

Monday, November 18, 2019

An internet based company research project for my Business management Essay

An internet based company research project for my Business management class - Essay Example The conclusion section summarizes the main ideas presented in the paper, and makes inferences where appropriate. Highlights of the paper include: a background of the company; its nature, mission and products, a description of the current financial standing; earnings or losses of the company, an overview of the problems and issues the company was subjected to, an investigation of the companys current and future business strategies, a summary and conclusions. Johnson & Johnson was established in 1886 in the New Jersey State. The company is very committed to innovative healthcare products (Johnson & Johnson, 2009). This has greatly contributed to the company’s consistent financial performance. Johnson & Johnson has enjoyed dividend increases for 47 consecutive years, adjusted earning increases for 25 consecutive years and sales increases for 76 consecutive years. Johnson & Johnson employs about 119,000 across the world and is involved in manufacturing and selling of healthcare products in a number of countries across the world. The company’s main interest, both currently and historically, is in products that are related to well-being and health (Johnson & Johnson, 2009). Johnson & Johnson strongly believes decentralized management principles, which it practices. The company’s executive committee is its principal management group, which ensures effective and efficient operations of the company. Furthermore, a number of members of the Executive Committee are also Group Operating Committee chairpersons. This committee comprises of management experts in a number of specialized functions and managers representing main operations within this group. The Committees are charged with the responsibility of overseeing and coordinating both international and domestic activities related to every Professional, Pharmaceutical and Consumer segments of

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Types Of Business Organization In The Private Sector Economics Essay

Types Of Business Organization In The Private Sector Economics Essay Consist of privately owned business firm or organization, which are formed when entrepreneurs decide to form a firm for the purpose of producing goods and services. Although the entrepreneur (assuming one person) is the owner is not the same entity. The firm (i.e. company or business organization) has its own legal identity that is separate from its owner or owners. The firm actually is an artificial person, and can make contracts, sue and sued, besides owning property and hiring employees; this legal identity is acquired when the firm becomes an incorporated association. The firm may have only one owner (sole proprietorship) or many owners (e.g. unlimited number of shareholders owning a public limited/ listed company), Sole Trader or Sole Proprietorship It is a form business organization in which a person simply sets up to provide goods or services at a profit. In a proprietorship, the proprietor, or owner, is the firm. The assets and liabilities of the firm are the owners assets and liabilities without limit. Business is one where a single individual uses his own funds to start and operate the business. As such, he is entitled to all the profits generated by the business, while at the same time is also responsible for all the losses that may occurs. The Sole Trader is often responsible for the day-to-day management of the business. No legal obligation to be made available to the public(i.e. publish) the financial accounts of a sole trading business is not incorporated business entity and as such the owner is liable for all debts of the sole proprietorship. Example: Sole Trader Business are: hairdressers storekeepers plumbers electricians PC technicians News agent Neighborhood and groceries etc. Partnership Partnership is unincorporated associations whose membership may range from two to twenty members. Partnerships do not have a separate legal entity. All partners provide the necessary finances for the business and will enjoy both profits and losses in agreed percentages, depending on the contribution of each individual into the partnership. Partnerships have unlimited liability and each partner is jointly liable with the other members for any debt incurred by the business. A partnership agreement is usually drawn up by a lawyer ( or legal council), which details the contribution of each part( in cash or in kind), the role and responsibilities of each partner, conditions under which the partnership may be terminated, distribution or compensation in the event of withdrawal of one partner ( termination of partnership) and options for handling intra-partner disputes. Personal names or trade names can be used as business names, and the Application of Business Name form must be filled in before a business can be registered. 4.) Private Limited Companies Private Limited Company:  Private limited companies are small- to medium-sized businesses that are often run by a  family or small group of owners. Most unlimited companies range from being small and medium sized. Most of the time they are run by family members and closed friends. Usually refers to privately owned firms and organizations with limited liabilities. Private Limited Companies are those shares (to represent shares/ percentage of ownership) held privately by individuals who are usually family members or a small group of acquaintances. The general public cannot subscribe (buy) shares in private companies through the open market (i.e. Stock Exchange). Private Limited Companies is restricted t by law and by the companys rules. In contrast anyone may buy shares in a public limited company. Can be found in most countries, although the detailed rules governing them vary widely. It is also common for a distinction to be made between the publicly tradable companies. A company that does not have share capital, but is guaranteed by its    members who agree to pay a fixed amount in the event of the companys liquidation. Charitable organizations often incorporate using this form of limited liability. Private Limited Companies is flexible form of enterprises that blends elements of partnership and corporate structures. The firm of organizations must work a legal framework which governs what they can or cannot do. The law requires for any new limited liability company to provide two documents: Articles of Association provide details on the internal rules of the company. Although the nature of association between members may vary, the Articles of Association must always contains information; the nominal capital when / how shareholders meeting are to be conducted. Voting rights of the shareholders. name of directors. how the directors are appointed. extent and nature of directors authority. how profits and losses will be distributed. Memorandum of Association provides details on the external rules and relations of the company by defining the constitution and authority of the company. Memorandum must always contain the: company name (must include the words limited). address of the registered office. statement of companys aims( must be legal proper). scope of its activities. amount of capital the company wants to raise. statement that the shareholders liability is limited. Private Corporations Companies registered under the Companies Act and Incorporation most common method that firms used to establish themselves a s a separate legal entity, i.e. only incorporated companies have a separate legal identity. 5.) Public Limited Companies Public Limited Company:  Most unlimited companies range from being small and medium sized. Most of the time they are run by family members and closed friends .They are only liable for the business up to the amount they have invested in the company, and are not liable for the debts incurred by the company unless signing a personal guarantee. And those that are listed on the Stock Exchange and members of the general public can but and sell shares of such companies. Owners of shares (shareholders) in such companies are true owner of the business. Whose operations involves many different business sectors ( e.g. several sectors health care, construction, property development, plantation, manufacturing, tourism, education,etc.) become a conglomerate and if such operation/subsidiaries are located in many different countries, then they become Multi National Companies. As their names implied means that the personal liability of the owners (shareholders) is restricted to the amount of money the individuals owner has invested into the company. 6.) Unlimited Companies Unlimited Companies Unlimited Company is where there is no limit to the members liabilities. It is a hybrid company incorporated either with or without a share capital (and similar to its limited company counterpart) but where the liability of the members or shareholders is not limited that is, its members or shareholders have a joint, several and unlimited obligation to meet any insufficiency in the assets of the company in the event of the companys formal liquidation. Companies that do not have any restriction on the personal liability of the owner. In the even of company making loss, then the owners will be liable for all debts. This may hence require them to sell off their private property and/ or possessions (house, land, cars, furniture, jewelry, etc.) to repay their portion of the debt. A corporation structure that permits a company to be incorporated and flew all profits and losses to share holders, an unlimited company shelters shareholders from liability in most circumstances except upon liquidation of the company. Shareholders or past shareholders that despots of their shares less than one year before liquidation become liable for the debts of the company. 7.) Multinational Companies Multinational Companies is essentially a holding company that owns shares in many subsidiary companies located in many different countries. Each subsidiary companies within the holding company will be subjected to the company law of the host country in which the subsidiary is located. They are usually connected by share ownership as well as managerial control. Examples of multinational includes: Shell, Citibank, Siemens, Nestle, IBM, Philips, etc. Multinational companies providing overseas subsidiaries, access turnover (Net Sales), produce of world output. Suppliers and the leading company in the wholesale distribution market and service industry. Do bring some benefits to developing countries. They provide jobs and increase the wealth of local people. Country gains some wealth by way taxes. However, there is some problem as well. The jobs all often low- skilled and poorly paid. Much of profit will go out the country, and the company may pull out to relocate in a country, where it can make greater profits. Primarily interested in making profits for their shareholders. Paying wages is an expense that the company will try to reduce to as low a level as possible. 8.) Conglomerates A holding company, which owns substantial shareholding in companies (subsidiaries), involved in different sectors.   Like examples sun way groups: civil engineering construction, building materials, trading manufacturing. Conglomerates are strictly diversified business interest in producing a varied and wide range of different products. And it is a corporation whose multiple business units operate in different, often unrelated, areas, management umbrella. In some, but not all, cases, the formerly independent elements conglomerates retain their brand identities, though they are responsible to the conglomerates management. . In reality, conglomerates are very useful to the public because support for the agricultural, manufacturing, and industrial and or services. For examples, the Rank organization own subsidiary companies trading. Question 1 Economic Growth is an increase of capital gross domestic of per capital product (GDP) other measure of aggregate income, typically reported as the annual rate of change in real G.D.P. Economics Growth driven by improvement in productivity , involve producing more goods and services with the same input of labor, capital, energy and materials. ( Mankiw 2007).Economist draw a distinction between economics stabilization and long term economics growth. Economics Growth is primarily concerned with long-run, short -run variation of economics growth is termed the business cycle. Economics Growth also occurs when a society acquires or when society learns to produce more with existing resources. New resources may mean a larger labor force or increased capital stocks. The production and use of new machinery and equipment (capital) increases the productivity of workers. Improved productivity also comes from technological change and innovation. Inflation is the increase in the general level of prices of product and services over a specified period of time. Inflation rate can be estimated by measuring the percentage change in the consumer price index, which indicates the price on wide variety of consumer products such as grocery product, housing, gasoline, medical services and electricity. Inflation can effect a firms operating expenses from producing products by increasing the cost of supplies and materials, wages can also be affected by inflation. A higher level of inflation will case a higher increase in a firms operating expenses. A firms revenue may also be high during periods of high inflation because may firm change higher price to compensate for higher expenses.( N. Gregory Mankiw 2007) Productivity is a measure of output from production process, per unit of input, like labor productivity typically also measured as a ratio of output an input. And also conserve of as a metric of the technical or engineering efficiency of production. In nations where workers are less productive, most people endure a more meager existence. Similarly, growth rate of a nations productivity determines the growth rate of its of average income. Productivity the average labor or output of a single worker is important to determine the standard of living. Most country facing a slow economics growth is: Former China, Greece and some Eastern Europe countries. Economic problems of every country are: Price Stability One of the key economics growth is to ensure that the price levels within the country is maintained with minimal fluctuations. Fluctuating price levels will create uncertainty, causing a wait- and see attitude among: consumers, who are ensure of buying now or to wait for the price to fall. Instead of falling, price levels may increase and consumers may then be force to forego consumption. firms, who are unsure of investing now since it is possible for the price of capital goods to also fall in the near future. Again, the price level may rise instead of falling thus causing firm to postpone investment since the cost is now higher than expected. Buying or investing at the wrong time may therefore create frustration and dissatisfaction among consumers and firms. On the other hand, continues increase in price levels although more consistent (i.e. everyone is expecting the price to increase) will lead to inflation and its related problems will then surface. Economics Growth faster than Population Growth Economics growth slow needed to spur the people and to improve their standard of living, which is determined by the ratio between economic growth over population growth. If a countrys population grows faster than its economy, then there will be a decline in living standards and this will lead to many social and other economic problems. The same amount of wealth is now distributed over more people, hence everyone gets lesser than before. Standard of living will also decline if the economic growth is slower than the rate of inflation. This means that the people will need to pay more for a similar basket (combination) of goods and services. Therefore, people with fixed incomes can buy lesser (or enjoy a smaller basket of goods and services) as inflation continues. c) Low Unemployment of Resources This is important to ensure that available resources (especially labor) are fully employed to produce more goods and service. When labor, land and capital are fully employed, more income will be earned (i.e. wages, rental and interest) resulting in higher expenditures among the owners of the factors of production (labor, land and capital respectively). Excess production may also be exported to other countries to earn foreign exchange, making a country economically stronger, in relation to the rest of the world. Countries with high unemployment will tend to have more economic and social problems, such as the following: higher crime rates and corruption activities (since people may resort to illegal means to get more money). health problems and malnutrition (since some people will not eat enough to eat or to have proper diets). D) Equitable Distribution of Income and Wealth It is important for a country to have a fair distribution of income and wealth among its people. The gap between the rich and poor must not be too great. The government must therefore practice an equitable resource allocation system deciding: what to produce? how much to product? for whom to product? Disparity in wealth ownership and distribution will also create various and economics problems. This problem results in low demand for products and services which can reduce a firms revenue. Even the firms that provide basic products or services are adversely affected by a slow economic because customers tend to reduce their demand. The potential impact of slow economic growth is reflected some company expect to experience significant fluctuations in future performance due to general economics growth. When economics is negative for two consecutive quarters, the period is referred to as a recession. When Europe is weak. Worker as laid off by firms and therefore have money that they can used to buy product or services. If economics growth slows the impact economic condition can spread quickly across all business. When condition weak some businesses are more affected more other than others. Nevertheless, most business are adversely affected by economic condition because the demand for product in almost all industrial declined( Markin 2007). Conclusion Introduction to Business is a subject in which a little knowledge goes a long way. By now i realize that all countries in the world have a government entrusted with the responsibility to achieve. Economics goals such as attaining price stability, economic growth, low unemployment and equitable distribution of income and wealth. Government today practice mixed economics system as it attempt to solve the economics problem that resulted from their inability to achieve the desire economics goals. Therefore capitalistic in nature with different degree of government intervention. As such, all countries have both a public sector and private sector.